AIR ATOMIZING: An air-atomizing nozzle uses a compressed gas to assist in the atomization process. Air-atomizing nozzles generally produce the smallest droplet sizes for a given liquid flow.

ATOMIZATION: The process of breaking up a continuous volume of liquid into droplets.

DIRECT PRESSURE: A direct-pressure nozzle is one in which the pressure of the liquid and the geometry of the nozzle combine to create atomization of the liquid. This is in contrast to an air-atomizing nozzle that uses a gas to help in the atomizing process.

DROPSIZE ANALYSIS: Nozzles produce a spectrum of droplet sizes. A dropsize analysis measures a sample of the spray and reports the droplet sizes found. Knowledge of the droplet size spectrum allows the most efficient nozzle to be selected for a given process.

FILTRATION: Equipment upstream of the nozzle that removes particulate may be necessary to prevent plugging. A filter sized to remove particles larger than half the nozzle-free passage is a practical rule of thumb.

FLOWRATE: The volume of fluid flowing through a nozzle per unit of time.

FLUID PROPERTIES: The density, viscosity, and surface tension of the sprayed liquid affect the atomization process. Most nozzle data is based on water; flowrate, spray angle, and droplet size may be different with liquids that do not have the same properties as water.

FREE PASSAGE: The smallest internal dimension along the flow path through the nozzle. Any particle smaller than that size should pass through the nozzle; any particle larger may obstruct the passages and cause clogging.

HEAD LOSS: The pressure lost in a piping system as the fluid moves through the pipes. The head loss between the pump and the nozzle has to be subtracted from the pump outlet pressure to determine the pressure at the nozzle.

K FACTOR: The flow from a nozzle varies with the pressure. The K-factor of a nozzle is a numerical coefficient that relates pressure to flow.

LANCE: Also known as a quill or injector, lances are prequalified and prefabricated spool pieces composed of pipes, flanges, fittings, and nozzles that can be uncrated and dropped into place on site, saving fabrication time in the field.

PUMP CURVE: Supplied by the pump manufacturer, a pump curve can be used to determine how much flow a pump can provide for any particular resistance it is pumping against. Changing nozzles changes the resistance of the system and will affect the pressure and capacity of the pump.

SPRAY ANGLE: For conical and fan spray patterns, the spray angle is the included angle of the cone or fan. Due to effects of gravity and air resistance, the actual spray angle departs from the theoretical spray angle as the drops move farther from the nozzle.

SPRAY PATTERN: The shape the spray makes after it is emitted from the nozzle. Common shapes are full cone, hollow cone, and flat fan.

UNIFORMITY: The uniformity of a nozzle measures how equally the liquid is being distributed over the extent of the pattern.

The terms and definitions for this Word Search were provided by spray nozzle manufacturer BETE Fog Nozzle.